Understanding the past enables a better understanding of the present. Many people have spent considerable time and energy in researching First Nation history and the following is a brief summary of a few significant happenings that occurred over the centuries. Information was provided by Daniel N. Paul, Historian and Author, and the Mi'kmaw Resource Guide, Second Edition - Eastern Woodland Publishing.

 

1400's
Time of Mi'kmaq

1500's
European Contact - some earlier reportings have been identifed, ie. John Cabot in 1497.

1610
Baptism of Chief Membertou and several followers. Beginning of conversion to Roman Catholicism.

1628
St. Anne adopted by the Mi'kmaq as their patron Saint.

1650's
Mi'kmaq became allies with the French and fought against the English

1713
English take over by the Treaty of Utrecht. Campaign to extinguish the Mi'kmaq by assimilation.

1725
Treaty of 1725 - One of many Treaties signed bewteen the Mi'kmaq and Birtish.

1749
Mi'kmaq "Extermination Policy" issued by Governor Cornwallis that included a reward for Mi'kmaq scalps.

1752
Peace Treaty signed by Chief Jean Baptiste Cope and other delegates of Nova Scotia.

1756
Proclamation issued by Governor Lawrence ordering hostilities against the Mi'kmaq people.

1760's
A series of Peace and Friendship Treaties signed.

1801
Nova Scotia Government allotted ten Mi'kmaq Reserves.

1842
The first legislated attempt by the English to try to stop the starvation of the Mi'kmaq. The English enacted the Act to provide for the Permanent Settlement of the Indians.

1867
All responsibilities for Indians turned over to the Federal Government.

1914
Over 150 Mi'kmaq men signed up for W.W.I

1930
Establishment of Residential School in Shubenacadie.

1939
Over 250 Mi'kmaq men signed up for W.W. II

1942
Centralization attempt of the Mi'kmaq Nation to two designated locations; Shubenacadie and Eskasoni; presently the two largest communities in Nova Scotia.

1950
Over 60 Mi'kmaq men enlisted for services in the Korean War.

1956
Canada recognizes Indians as Canadian Citizens.

1960
Mi'kmaq people receives right to vote in Federal and Provincial elections.

1969
Union of Nova Scotia Indian (UNSI) formed. Assimilation Policy (White Policy) issued by Federal Government and protested by First Nations.

1970's
Formation of the Micmac Asscoiation of Cultural Studies, Native Council of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Native Women's Association and National Brotherhood established.

1985
Reinstatement of Indian women who lost their status through marriage, known as Bill C-31. The 1752 Treaty is validated by the Supreme Court of Canada.

1994
Mi'kmaq take control of Post Secondary Education in Nova Scotia. First known as the Micmac Education Authority and presently known as the MK - Mi'kmaw Kina'masuti (education).

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