Understanding the past enables a better
understanding of the present. Many people have spent
considerable time and energy in researching First Nation
history and the following is a brief summary of a few
significant happenings that occurred over the centuries.
Information was provided by Daniel N. Paul, Historian
and Author, and the Mi'kmaw Resource Guide, Second Edition
- Eastern Woodland Publishing.
Time of Mi'kmaq
European Contact - some earlier reportings have been
identifed, ie. John Cabot in 1497.
Baptism of Chief Membertou and several followers. Beginning
of conversion to Roman Catholicism.
St. Anne adopted by the Mi'kmaq as their patron Saint.
Mi'kmaq became allies with the French and fought against
English take over by the Treaty of Utrecht. Campaign
to extinguish the Mi'kmaq by assimilation.
Treaty of 1725 - One of many Treaties signed bewteen
the Mi'kmaq and Birtish.
Mi'kmaq "Extermination Policy" issued by Governor
Cornwallis that included a reward for Mi'kmaq scalps.
Peace Treaty signed by Chief Jean Baptiste Cope and other
delegates of Nova Scotia.
Proclamation issued by Governor Lawrence ordering hostilities
against the Mi'kmaq people.
A series of Peace and Friendship Treaties signed.
Nova Scotia Government allotted ten Mi'kmaq Reserves.
The first legislated attempt by the English to try to
stop the starvation of the Mi'kmaq. The English enacted
the Act to provide for the Permanent Settlement of
All responsibilities for Indians turned over to the Federal
Over 150 Mi'kmaq men signed up for W.W.I
Establishment of Residential School in Shubenacadie.
Over 250 Mi'kmaq men signed up for W.W. II
Centralization attempt of the Mi'kmaq Nation to two designated
locations; Shubenacadie and Eskasoni; presently the
two largest communities in Nova Scotia.
Over 60 Mi'kmaq men enlisted for services in the Korean
Canada recognizes Indians as Canadian Citizens.
Mi'kmaq people receives right to vote in Federal and
Union of Nova Scotia Indian (UNSI) formed. Assimilation
Policy (White Policy) issued by Federal Government
and protested by First Nations.
Formation of the Micmac Asscoiation of Cultural Studies,
Native Council of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Native Women's
Association and National Brotherhood established.
Reinstatement of Indian women who lost their status through
marriage, known as Bill C-31. The 1752 Treaty is validated
by the Supreme Court of Canada.
Mi'kmaq take control of Post Secondary Education in Nova
Scotia. First known as the Micmac Education Authority
and presently known as the MK - Mi'kmaw Kina'masuti